When zeroes and ones provide the story
What is data journalism? I could answer, simply, that it is journalism done with data. But that doesn’t help much. Both ‘data’ and ‘journalism’ are troublesome terms.
Some people think of ‘data’ as any collection of numbers, most likely gathered on a spreadsheet.
20 years ago, that was pretty much the only sort of data that journalists dealt with.
But we live in a digital world now, a world in which almost anything can be - and almost everything is - described with numbers.
Why data journalism is important
Your career history, 300,000 confidential documents, who knows who in your circle of friends can all be (and are) described with just two numbers: zeroes, and ones.
Photos, video and audio are all described with the same two numbers: zeroes and ones. Murders, disease, political votes, corruption and lies: zeroes and ones.
What makes data journalism different to the rest of journalism?
And those possibilities can come at any stage of the journalist’s process: using programming to automate the process of gathering and combining information from local government, police, and other civic sources, as Adrian Holovaty did with ChicagoCrime and then EveryBlock.
Or using software to find connections between hundreds of thousands of documents, as The Telegraph did with MPs' expenses.
Data journalism presents new possibilities for information gathering
Helping journalists tell complex stories
Data journalism can help a journalist tell a complex story through engaging infographics. Hans Rosling’s spectacular talks on visualizing world poverty with Gapminder, for example, have attracted millions of views across the world.
And David McCandless’s popular work in distilling big numbers — such as putting public spending into context, or the pollution generated and prevented by the Icelandic volcano — shows the importance of clear design at Information is Beautiful.
Or it can help explain how a story relates to an individual, as the BBC and the Financial Times now routinely do with their budget interactives (where you can find out how the budget affects you, rather than ‘Joe Public’).
Engaging infographics help journalists tell complex stories
Expanding news gathering
And it can open up the news gathering process itself, as The Guardian does so successfully in sharing data, context, and questions with their Datablog.
Data can be the source of data journalism, or it can be the tool with which the story is told — or it can be both.
Like any source, it should be treated with scepticism; and like any tool, we should be conscious of how it can shape and restrict the stories that are created with it.
Like any source, treat data with scepticism
This piece is part of the Data Journalism Handbook which is released under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA. Selected chapters of the handbook are being republished in the Media Helping Media Data Journalism section. In each case the author or authors of the piece are mentioned.
Written by Paul Bradshaw of Birmingham City University.
Image by Chris McClanahan and released under Creative Commons.